and storage (CCS)
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a way of reducing carbon emissions,
which could be key to helping to tackle global warming. Its a
three-step process, involving: capturing the carbon dioxide produced
by power generation or industrial activity, such as steel or cement
making; transporting it; and then storing it deep underground. Here
we look at the potential benefits of CCS and how it works.
CO2 Solutions by SAIPEM
Quest Carbon Capture and Storage
Aker Carbon Capture
Zero Carbon Humber
Founded in 2010, Global
Thermostat is working to commercialize its unique, multi-patented portfolio
of solutions for capturing and removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere
to address climate change and power the growing circular carbon economy.
Its goal is to develop the least resource intensive, lowest cost solution
to resolve the climate threat through Direct Air Capture.
Carbfix is based in Iceland,
where they have been an operation at the Hellisheiði Power Plant
since 2014. In 2019, they were established as a subsidiary of Reykjavik
Energy (OR) and have been operating as a separate entity since January
Carbfix is academic-industrial partnership that has developed a novel
approach to capturing and storing CO2 by its capture in water and its
injection into subsurface basalts.
Trees and vegetation are
not the only form of carbon drawdown from the atmosphere. Vast quantities
of carbon are naturally stored in rocks. Carbfix imitates and accelerates
these natural processes, where carbon dioxide is dissolved in water
and interacts with reactive rock formations, such as basalts, to form
stable minerals providing a permanent and safe carbon sink. The Carbfix
process captures and permanently removes CO2. The technology provides
a complete carbon capture and injection solution, where CO2 dissolved
in water a sparkling water of sorts is injected into the
subsurface where it reacts with favorable rock formations to form solid
carbonate minerals via natural processes in about 2 years. For the Carbfix
technology to work, one needs to meet three requirements: favorable
rocks, water, and a source of carbon dioxide.
CO2 Solutions is based in Quebec, Canada.
They were established in 1997 and have since developed a unique carbon
capture technology that was inspired by the human lung.
Their technology uses an industrial form
of the natural enzyme called carbonic anhydrase (CA), which is present
in all animals and plants. The enzyme is what
allows us to breathe, by managing the carbon we breathe in.
CO2 Solutions turned to
the living world for natures most powerful known catalyst for
carbon management, the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme. After observing,
analysing and understanding how this natural enzyme functions, the company
was able to develop an innovative industrial disruptive process using
the enzyme, at a very competitive operating cost.
Contrary to conventional
carbon-capture technologies, the CO2 Solutions by Saipem process neither
requires nor produces toxic products. It is a carbon-capture solution
that is clean, stable, with extremely fast absorption kinetics and low
energy consumption, and poses absolutely no danger to human health or
The CO2 Solutions allows
post-combustion emissions to be captured directly from industrial sources
like chimneys. The CO2 is then extracted for purification in order to
be reused or converted. Adaptable to all types of gaseous effluents,
this innovative technology helps companies better monetize their industrial
processes, all while reducing their environmental footprint.
The solution of choice
to actively, safely and profitably fight against climate change, our
industrial lung technology turns every user into a dynamic player in
the new carbon economy.
NET Power is based in Durham, North Carolina
in the United States. Their technology development began in 2008 as
an exercise in developing low-cost power that did not produce any carbon
NET Power technology burns natural gas with pure oxygen. The resulting
CO2 is recycled through the combustor, turbine, heat exchanger, and
compressor, creating lower-cost power with zero emissions.
The mission of NET Power is to provide advanced clean energy to consumers
worldwide by generating lower-cost power with zero emissions. NET Power
is a clean energy technology company that promotes, develops, and licenses
a proprietary process for efficiently generating electricity from natural
gas while capturing all CO2 emissions. NET Powers revolutionary
technology promises to enable the world to meet its climate goals without
paying more for electricity. The company is co-owned by and benefitted
by the support of Constellation, McDermott International, 8 Rivers Capital,
Oxy Low Carbon Ventures, a subsidiary of Occidental, and Baker Hughes.
Quest Carbon Capture and Storage by Shell
Quest is Shells carbon capture plant
at their Scotford Upgrader power plant in Alberta, Canada. It is run
and owned by Shell, who use it to remove the carbon they generate at
the power plant converting bitumen from sand into oil.
Shell, on behalf of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), a joint
venture between Shell Canada (60 percent), Chevron Canada Limited (20
percent) and Marathon Oil Sands L.P. (20 percent), conducted development
work on a carbon capture and storage (CCS) project to help manage carbon
dioxide from the Scotford Upgrader. This work led to the Shell Quest
project, which captures carbon dioxide from the Scotford Upgrader and
permanently stores it deep underground, preventing it from dispersing
into the air.
The Quest carbon capture and storage (CCS) facility, near Edmonton,
Alberta, shows that large-scale CO2 capture is a safe and effective
measure to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial sources. Quest was built
ahead of schedule and under budget. Since opening in late 2015, the
facility has captured more CO2 than expected and stored it safely 2
To date, Quest has captured and stored
over 6 million tonnes of CO2.
Climeworks is a carbon capture company
based in Zurich, Switzerland, and was established in 2009. However,
their technology has been in development since 2007. The company filters
the CO2 directly from the ambient air through an adsorption-desorption
Once the CO2 is captured, it can be permanently and safely turned into
stone through rapid mineralization which is a natural occurrence where
the CO2 reacts with basalt rock.
Climeworks is the largest company offering
carbon capture services that capture carbon directly from the air and
theyre currently building a new direct air capture plant called
Orca in Iceland.
Theyre using their own technology
to capture CO2 and then using Carbfixs technology for underground
storage. The plant aims to capture 4000 tons of CO2 per year
making it the worlds biggest climate-positive facility to date.
In addition to Orca, they have over 6500 smaller plants in operation
with various partners.
Carbon Engineering was established in 2009, in Calgary, Canada. They
moved to Squamish in 2015, where they built their pilot plant to capture
carbon directly from the atmosphere and either store it safely underground
or convert it to synthetic fuel.
Carbon Engineering has
since partnered with companies in the US and the UK to collect and sequester
atmospheric carbon, as well as companies around the world to produce
clean fuel from the carbon they collect.
Unlike capturing emissions from industrial flue stacks, our technology
captures carbon dioxide (CO2) the primary greenhouse gas responsible
for climate change directly out of the air around us. This can
help counteract todays unavoidable CO2 emissions, and address
the large quantities of CO2 emitted in the past that remains trapped
in our atmosphere.
At Carbon Engineering,
were focused on the global deployment of megaton-scale Direct
Air Capture technology so it can have the greatest impact on the huge
climate challenge. Our team and partners around the world are working
to deploy Direct Air Capture facilities that can capture one million
tons of CO2 per year each which is equivalent to the carbon removal
work of approx. 40 million trees.
Aker Carbon Capture is a pure-play carbon capture company with solutions,
services and technologies serving a range of industries, including the
cement, bio and waste-to-energy, gas-to-power and blue hydrogen segments.
Aker Carbon Captures proprietary carbon-capture technology offers
a unique, environmentally friendly solution for removing CO2 emissions.
The Humber is the industrial heartland of the UK and there are ambitious
plans to decarbonise the region through the East Coast Cluster. Key
to that ambition is Zero Carbon Humber, a collection of international
energy producers, major regional industries, leading infrastructure
and logistics operators, global engineering firms and academic institutions.
By collaborating, we can help decarbonise the Humber and deliver a net
This will be enabled by
shared pipelines delivered by the East Coast Cluster for
low-carbon hydrogen and captured carbon emissions, creating the worlds
first net zero industrial region by 2040.
Delivering this is expected
to protect 55,000 existing jobs in the Humber and create 49,000 new
ones, while supporting skills, apprenticeships and educational opportunities
across the region.
What is CCS?
Carbon capture and storage
involves the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from
industrial processes, such as steel and cement production, or
from the burning of fossil fuels in power generation. This carbon
is then transported from where it was produced, via ship or
in a pipeline, and stored deep underground in geological formations.
How can CCS help prevent global warming?
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlighted
that, if we are to achieve the ambitions of the Paris Agreement
and limit future temperature increases to 1.5 degrees, we must
do more than just increasing efforts to reduce emissions - we
also need to deploy technologies to remove carbon from the atmosphere.
CCS is one of these technologies and can therefore play an important
role in tackling global warming.
How does CCS actually work?
are three steps to the CCS process:
1. Capturing the carbon dioxide for storage
The CO2 is
separated from other gases produced in industrial processes,
such as those at coal and natural-gas-fired power generation
plants or steel or cement factories.
The CO2 is
then compressed and transported via pipelines, road transport
or ships to a site for storage.
the CO2 is injected into rock formations deep underground for
Where are carbon emissions stored in CCS?
storage sites for carbon emissions include saline aquifers or
depleted oil and gas reservoirs. These typically need to be
1km or more under the ground.
an example, a storage site for the proposed Zero Carbon Humber
project in the UK is a saline aquifer named Endurance,
which is located in the southern North Sea, around 90km offshore.
Endurance is approximately 1.6km below the seabed and has the
potential to store very large amounts of CO2.
What is Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CCUS)? What
is the difference between CCUS and CCS?
well as CCS, there is a related concept, CCUS, which stands
for Carbon Capture Utilisation (or sometimes this is termed
usage) and Storage. The idea is that, instead of
storing carbon, it could be re-used in industrial processes
by converting it into, for example, plastics, concrete or biofuel.
Is storage of carbon as part of CCS safe?
to industry body the Global CCS Institute, CCS is a proven
technology that has been in safe operation for over 45 years.
It adds that all components of CCS are proven technologies that
have been used for decades on a commercial scale.
Where is CCS being used already?
to the Global CCS Institutes 2019 report, at that time
there were 51 large-scale CCS facilities globally. 19 of these
were in operation, 4 under construction and the remainder in
various stages of development.
of these were in the Americas, 12 in Europe, 12 in Asia-Pacific
and 2 in the Middle East.
Where was the first CCS facility?
has been in operation since 1972 in the US, where several natural
gas plants in Texas have captured and stored more than 200million
tons of CO2 underground.