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"A biology that sees all nature as co-evolving holons
[living entities] in holarchies [interdependent embeddedness] will quickly
reveal much about humanity itself as one such holon-containing its own
holarchy of individuals, families, organizations, communities, nations
and world. Through this understanding of ourselves, we will gain profound
insights on where we succeed and where we fail as a living system."
is solid and static, the other illuminates and animates. Architects
through the ages have preoccupied themselves with how to marry these
two opposing aspects of architecture, a marriage that at its finest
transforms natural light itself into a building material."
I've said goodbye to the overworked
notion that architecture has to save the world.
The Meaning of light
Light is a source of illumination, whether a natural one (like the sun)
or an artificial one (like your lamp). Like light itself, the word can
take a lot of different forms it can be a noun, an adjective,
or a verb, and it can mean "bright" or "not heavy".
What is the meaning
of light in our life?
Light, the essence of life itself. ... Light is the main source of
energy for all living organisms. Plants, main sustainers of life,
are crucial in this conversion process and need light for photosynthesis
that enables them to make their own food and food for others.
What does light mean spiritually?
In theology, divine light (also called divine radiance or divine
refulgence) is an aspect of divine presence, specifically an unknown
and mysterious ability of angels or human beings to express themselves
communicatively through spiritual means, rather than through physical
What is light energy?
Light energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Light consists
of photons, which are produced when an object's atoms heat up. Light
travels in waves and is the only form of energy visible to the human
For Light On Main Street (especially during the pandemic)
Creative Director | Leader
| Urban Lighting Designer | Nighttime Designer | Public Speaker
in 1927,Virginia Woolf stopped writing. She needed a pencil. Her short
story, Street Haunting: A
London Adventure is a depiction of her high street/main street
nightwalk in search of that writing implement.
" 'Really, I must buy a pencil.As if undercover of this excuse
we could indulge safely in the greatest pleasure of
town life in winter rambling the streets of London.
With requirements to maintain social distancing, many places are installing
temporary measures to manage safety,
but also to encourage people back into city centers as part of their
recovery plans.Therefore, it is perhaps not
surprising Tactical Urbanism for example, parklets and painting
streets is in vogue. However, as is usual, most
current guidance and examples of tactical design responses assume daytime
uses. With fraught reopening of
entertainment and hospitality sectors, the nighttime economy is a primary
There is a perception that public realm lighting schemes must involve
expensive equipment and installation.
Surprisingly, in my Manhattan neighborhood, the Covid-19 pandemic has
generated transformative night, do-it-
yourself, lighting.This article is focused on quick, inexpensive DIY
This article responds to the basic US recommendations for updated street
design due to the pandemic.
of pavement space for walking and alternative mobility,
2. Enlarge sidewalks for distanced-dining areas,
3. Full street closure for micro-mobility and pedestrians
The ordinary storefront can provide a safe-feeling, attractive street
wall for walking after sunset with thoughtful
displays and quality lighting. Extending the concept of an illuminated
shop window into the pedestrian way, a
fresh approach is proposed for increased walkability and later open
Consider the fairy light...easy to procure, to handle, powers up at
one end, and, comes in a multitude of shapes
and hues. From the tiniest seed lights to hi-tech color-changing globes,
festoon lights are the ultimate DIY lighting
system. Design choices include bulb size, color, wattage (brightness),
dimension offset, and cable pigment. Lantern
coverings can be added to the tiny bulbs for a more substantial look.
Imaginative stringing for example, weaving,
crisscrossing, and armatures for sculptural form add a kind-of
gravitas to this cheerful approach.
focus on functional qualities, also consider how lighting can be used
creatively to create a welcoming
environment and contribute to place distinction.
For newly pedestrianized streets,or reallocated public space,another
DIY application is to loosely wrap streetlights
with colorful theatrical gel filters, which will transform
into immersive, tinted environments, strengthening
identity and enjoyment. Sheets of flexible filters can be purchased
at a theatrical supply shop.
Photo: Xavier Boymond
Supplementary to festooning across streets, as is usual for holidays,
lights can string from streetlight to street-
light parallel to pavement and store windows defining entries
and illuminating extended outdoor dining ar-
eas. Spacing string-light spectacles across the street or parallel
could mirror the 6-foot condition. Pre-sock-
eted lengths of cable are available at light stores, or many local organizations
will already have holiday lighting
stock. Here, we propose that creative, festive lighting could be brought
into use to help with the recovery of
Additionally, for greatest effect, shops and restauranteurs might collaborate
on multiple lengths to encompass a
section of the road or even district. For visual quality, a designer
or artist could be brought on board to define
products and patterns. Engage with local shop keepers to see how they
might contribute.With solar-powered
LEDs available for little money, a group of businesses might quickly
add to the visual quality of streets after
dark with installations in their shop windows. Collectively, the effects
will be even more transformative.
Summing up, illumination strategies are made of an ephemeral tool kit:
beam-spread shapes, brightness level,
LED streetlighting, in the future, will be managed by software. One
can envision responsive public lighting to
dim for areas of dining, to allow restauranteurs to feature private
light schemes or candles.Additionally, pools
of light can define physical distancing requirements.
More sophisticated design approaches are in our city futures... but
for now, please consider the fairy light
Schwendinger is an internationally acclaimed speaker who
shares her journey as an artist-activist with audiences to spark their
in global conferences, associations, and small groups as a speaker and
leader engaging a variety of design genres. She conducts training and
workshops, in-person and/or online.
scary or poetic? Inviting or frightful? These questions speak to
the challenges of utilizing outdoor spaces. Leni facilitates local community
and stakeholder engagement with the NightSeeing Navigate Your
Luminous City program in cities and towns worldwide. For example, in
Cartagena, Colombia, her research team sought to discover methodologies
to build stronger communities with light through a hands-on lantern
objective is to expand social interaction and activity in public spaces.
This ambitious challenge is shared with audiences through a dramatic
discovery of light.
As the coronavirus pandemic
has moved around the world, cities have gone into lockdown and people
have been encouraged to stay at home. In many places, curfews have
Back in spring under
the first UK lockdown, I went on numerous night walks in my home city
of Manchester. I was struck by several things. Without traffic or
trains, birdsong prevailed in this peculiar quietness. The air was
fresh and crisp without the usual pollution. Yet, the artificial lights
of the city at night still blazed, for no one.
Now, as England enters
a second national lockdown, urban landscapes remain just as bright.
It’s a similar situation around the globe, a powerful reminder of
the wasteful ways we have become so accustomed to that we don’t even
think about them.
Light pollution is a big
problem, not just because of the needless
energy and money that it represents. Light is everywhere,
an often-uninvited byproduct of our contemporary lives, shining from
the devices we use and through the environments we inhabit.
appears unwanted. How did we get to the point where if an urban landscape
is not dazzling with light it must be troubling, even threatening?
From dark to light
Since the Enlightenment,
Western culture has been closely bound with ideas of illumination
and darkness as representative of good and evil. Shining a light on
all things meant the pursuit of truth, purity, knowledge and wisdom.
Darkness, by contrast, was associated with ignorance, deviancy, malevolence
Between the 16th and
18th centuries in Europe, for example, changes in attitudes and beliefs
toward the night were important in framing perceptions of darkness
that have endured. Transformations in societies gave rise to new opportunities
for labour and leisure – which, coupled with the evolution of artificial
illumination and street lighting, recast the night as an expansion
of the day. Rather than being embraced, darkness was viewed as something
to be banished with light.
But this view was not
necessarily shared by other cultures. For example, in his 1933 classic
Praise of Shadows,
the Japanese author Jun'ichiro Tanizaki pointed out the absurdity
of greater and greater quantities of light. Instead, he celebrated
the delicate and nuanced aspects of everyday life that were rapidly
being lost as artificial illumination took over:
The progressive Westerner
is determined always to better his lot. From candle to oil lamp,
oil lamp to gaslight, gaslight to electric light – his quest for
a brighter light never ceases, he spares no pains to eradicate even
the minutest shadow.
In the context of many
city centres today, darkness is unwanted – connected to criminal,
immoral and sinister behaviour. Yet recent
research by engineering firm Arup has shown that some of
these concerns might be misplaced. Further research
has shown that cities need a better understanding of light to help
tackle inequality. It can be used to promote civic life and help create
urban spaces that are vibrant, accessible and comfortable for the
diverse people who share them.
Meanwhile values of light,
clarity, cleanliness and coherence in urban landscapes have been transferred
across the global experience of culture more widely, resulting in
a worldwide disappearance of the night
The cost of light
This is not a small issue.
Scientists are increasingly referring to this as a global challenge.
Dark-Sky Association has shown that the waste in both energy
and money is huge – in the US alone this adds up to $3.3 billion and
an unnecessary release of 21
million tonnes of carbon dioxide each year. Of greater
concern are the devastating
impacts over-illumination and light pollution is having
upon human health, other species, and the planet’s ecosystems.
The circadian rhythms
of humans are disrupted by exposure to artificial light at night,
making those working on-call, long hours or in shift work prone
to diseases such as cancer,
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders.
Britain’s night workers now account for one
in nine employees, so this is a significant issue.
Millions of migrating
birds become disorientated
by electric lights, causing them to crash into buildings, while migrating
turtles and beetles that use moonlight become disorientated.
It is clear we need alternatives
– and quickly. Instead of reducing lighting pollution, new LED technologies
it. This is because they have been rolled out with an emphasis
on economic savings rather than scrutinised and applied with the nuance
they are capable of in terms of array, colour, and power. Shifting
the emphasis from quantity to quality is crucial so that we can appreciate
different types of lighting appropriate to different contexts, such
as the lighting scheme for Moscow’s Zaryadye
Park, designed by US design studio Diller Scofidio + Renfro,
which reflects existing sources of light.
Dark skies have value.
They are a profoundly wonderful yet highly threatened natural asset.
It is unsurprising that people are increasingly rediscovering the
joys of walking at night, whether in cities
or the countryside.
We need a new conception
the dark and new visions for places that enable us to reconnect
with the night sky through more responsible and less environmentally
harmful lighting. Although intended as art, Thierry Cohen’s Villes
éteintes (Darkened Cities) photographic series is
powerful in the way it conveys how future cities could be with a more
responsible and ecological approach to urban illumination. His photographs
are a reminder of our connection to the cosmos and the dark skies
many miss out on.
Among the complex and
cascading issues that climate change presents, engaging with the potential
of darkness in our cities is more important and urgent
than ever before. Urban development around the world remains uneven
and it would be easy to repeat and increase the problems we have already
caused with light pollution. It is time for us to embrace the darkness.
The Earth's climate system depends entirely on the Sun for its
energy. Solar radiation warms the atmosphere and is fundamental to atmospheric
composition, while the distribution of solar heating across the planet
produces global wind patterns and contributes to the formation of clouds,
storms, and rainfall. (Google)
Holder of the
Elisabet Sahtouris Chair in Living Economies at World Business Academy
the Sun is Necessary for Optimal Health
With Alexander Wunsch
University of California Television (UCTV)
Alexander Wunsch, MD, Wismar University
of Applied Sciences, Germany gives a historical perspective on sunlight
exposure and explains how both the publics and medical communitys
perspective has changed over time. Recorded on 12/09/2014. [3/2015]
Please Note: Knowledge
about health and medicine is constantly evolving. This information may
become out of date.
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Technologies is the leader in next-generation battery technology.
Our technology aims to enable the next generation of mobile technology
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has positioned Pellion to drive the next generation of devices.
launches the 'Innovation and sustainability in rural areas' challenge,
in collaboration with Start-up Olé and with the support of the
European Commission. A pioneering programme to promote the recovery
of natural spaces in depopulated areas of Spain and Portugal through
the conversion of burnt land or wasteland into forests.
INNOVATION TO REFOREST VILLAGES IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
The 'Innovation and sustainability in rural
areas' challenge aims to attract investment, create jobs and generate
projects in rural areas that ensure a better quality of life and services
for the inhabitants of these areas. Open to all municipalities with
less than 15,000 inhabitants in Spain and Portugal, the programme will
assess the sustainability, entrepreneurship and innovation strategy
of the candidates, with special attention to the promotion of renewable
energies and the decarbonisation
of their economic activity.
To promote this initiative, the Iberdrola
international start-up programme has the support of the European Commission
and its strategic plan "A long-term vision for the EU's rural areas"
through the REInA platform (Rural European Innovation Area), promoted
by the University of Salamanca and managed by Start-up
information can be found on the official website of the Startup
LightingEurope is the voice
of the lighting industry, based in Brussels and representing 30 companies
and national associations. Together these members account for over 1,000
European companies, a majority of which are small or medium-sized, that
manufacture luminaires, lamps and related components. They represent
a total European workforce of over 100,000 people and an annual turnover
exceeding 20 billion euro.
LightingEurope is committed to promoting
efficient lighting that benefits human comfort, safety and well-being,
and the environment. LightingEurope advocates a positive business and
regulatory environment to foster fair competition and growth for the
European lighting industry.
What we do
LightingEuropes mission is to achieve
the lighting industrys Strategic Vision to deliver the value of
lighting by 2025.
The lighting industry is harnessing the
potential of LEDification and Sustainability and is delivering energy-efficient
and sustainable lighting products.
The increased Value of Lighting to society
will come from Intelligent Lighting Systems and Human Centric Lighting.
LightingEurope liaises with European legislators
to share our members technical expertise and to help shape a healthy
regulatory framework with simple rules that are better enforced, benefit
people and the planet and foster a fair competitive business environment
here for an overview of all EU Policies impacting Lighting.
Shelter and natural light
are fundamental elements of architecture. The first is concerned with
protection from natural elements; the second with the creative and sometimes
spiritual interaction between the man-made and the natural worlds. One
is solid and static, the other illuminates and animates.
Architects through the
ages have preoccupied themselves with how to marry these two opposing
aspects of architecture, a marriage that at its finest transforms natural
light itself into a building material. Seen through the eyes of an architect
and photographer, The Architecture of Natural Light is the first publication
to consider the many effects of natural illumination in contemporary
buildings. This comprehensive and thoughtful survey begins with a brief
introduction exploring the advances and experimentation of architects
throughout the centuries. Each of the following seven chapters is devoted
to a specific quality of natural light, including evanescence, atomization,
and luminescence, and examines the particular uses of light through
many disciplines from art history to film and literature. With
more than fifty case studies of buildings from around the world, this
volume considers works by some of the worlds most influential
architects, including Tadao Ando, Steven Holl, Herzog & de Meuron,
Peter Zumthor, Frank Gehry, Álvaro Siza, Alberto Campo Baeza,
Rafael Moneo, Rem Koolhaas, Jean Nouvel, Fumihiko Maki, and Toyo Ito,
For all those seeking to
create space that transcends the physical, The Architecture of Natural
Light is a powerful and poetic yet practical survey that provides
an original and timeless approach to contemporary architecture.
teaches architectural theory and design at the University of Illinois,
and is an associate of the Center for Advanced Study there. He received
his M.Arch. from M.I.T., studied light art with Gyorgy Kepes, and was
a photographic apprentice to Minor White. He is the author of numerous
books, most recently Masters of Light, First Volume: Twentieth-Century
OF NATURAL LIGHT by Henry Plummer, Laureate of The Daylight Award 2020
of a world where dignified and self-reliant communities live in harmony
Tarun Bharat Sangh seeks
to bring dignity and prosperity to the life of a destitute section of
the nation through sustainable development measures. TBS aims for the
holistic development of men, women, and children, regardless of economic
situation, caste or religion. TBS promotes the community-driven-decentralized-management
of the natural resources.
TBS is working for the
empowerment of communities; we believe in Gram Swarajya- village self-rule.
The unique part of TBSs modus operandi for development is to make
community self-reliance. This happens when you invite the community
to participate at every stage of development-work for them.
Expansion or Restoration
of social and cultural values by setting examples in welfare action.
Finding a balance between
human and natural resource development.
Ensuring women participation
in the process of decision making.
Improvement of the level
of education in the community.
Incorporation of better
Energizing human power,
especially youth power, to harness energy to value-based work.
The TBS strengthened
by constant contact with local communities to evolve a method of working
with the people. Its strategy gradually crystallized into five themes.
The effort has to be
collective one from the community in which all would benefit proportionately
from the improvement that would be planned.
The collective wisdom
could be conceived in an atmosphere where informal communication took
place, and every one had an equal opportunity to be heard.
All decisions would
be strictly enforced, and the community would be its own self-disciplinarian.
Each person in the collective
community would be individually responsible to carry out the tasks.
The community would
only use outside help as a catalyst for their guidance and for the
facilitation of the work processes.
Swiss architect Peter Zumthor
at the Venice International Architecture Biennale in 2018. - Wikimedia
(b. 1943) is a Swiss architect. Among his best-known projects are the
Kunsthaus Bregenz in Austria, the thermal baths in Vals in Switzerland,
the Swiss Pavilion for Expo 2000 in Hannover (an all-timber structure
intended to be recycled after the event) and the Kolumba Diocesan Museum
in Cologne. Zumthor is the winner of several prestigious awards such
as the 1998 Carlsberg Architecture Prize, the Mies van der Rohe Award
for European Architecture (1999), the Praemium Imperiale (2008), the
2009 Pritzker Architecture Prize and the 2013 RIBA Royal Gold Medal.
He lives and works in Switzerland.- Louisiana Channel
I never decided
to become an architect. | Architect Peter Zumthor